Whale
Research: Summaries

alaskan humpbacks

hawaiians and humpbacks

mating and reproduction

migration and habitat use

role of size

social behavior on winter grounds

whale song

whale research publications

dolphin research

Humpback Whale Research Publications



See also our dolphin research publications
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Herman, L. M., Pack, A. A., Spitz, S. S, Herman, E. Y. K., Rose, K, Hakala, S., & Deakos, M. H. (2013). Humpback whale song: Who sings? Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology.

Pack, A. A., Herman, L. M., Spitz, S. S., Craig, A. S., Hakala, S., Deakos, M. H., Herman, E. Y. K., Millette, A. J., Carroll, E., Levitt, S., & Lowe, C. (2012). Size assortative pairing and discrimination of potential mates by humpback whales in the Hawaiian breeding grounds. Animal Behaviour, 84, 983-993. (full text PDF)

Herman, L. M., Pack, A. A., Rose, K., Craig, A., Herman, E. Y. K., Hakala, S., & Milette, A. (2011). Resightings of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters over spans of ten to 32 years: site fidelity, sex ratios, calving rates, female demographics, and the dynamics of social and behavioural roles of individuals. Marine Mammal Science, 27, 736-768. (full text PDF)

Green, S. R., Mercado III, E., Pack, A. A., & Herman, L. M. (2011).  Recurring patterns in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).  Behavioural Processes, 86, 284-294. (full text PDF)

Mizroch, S. A., Tillman, M. F., Jurasz, S., von Ziegesar, O., Herman, L. M., Pack, A. A., Baker, S., Darling, J., Glockner-Ferrari, D., Ferrari, M., Salden, D., & Clapham, P. J. (2011).  Long-term survival of humpback whales radio-tagged in Alaska from 1976 through 1978.  Marine Mammal Science,27, 217-229. (full text PDF)

Mercado, E., Schneider, J., Pack, A. A., & Herman, L. M. (2010). A source-filter model of sound production by humpback whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127, 2678-2691.

Pack, A. A., Herman, L. M., Spitz, S. S., Hakala, S. Deakos, M. H., & Herman, E. Y. K. (2009). Male humpback whales in the Hawaiian winter grounds preferentially associate with larger females. Animal Behaviour, 77, 653-662.

Herman, E. Y. K., Herman L. M., Pack, A. A., Marshall, G., Shepard, C. M., & Bakhtiari, M. (2008). When whales collide: Crittercam offers insights into the competitive behavior of humpback whales on their Hawaiian wintering grounds. Marine Technology Society Journal, 41, 35-43. (full text PDF)

Steiger, G.H., J. Calambokidis, J.M. Straley, L.M. Herman, S. Cerchio, D.R. Salden, J. Urbán-R, J.K. Jacobsen, O. von Ziegesar, K.C. Balcomb, C.M. Gabriele, M.E. Dahlheim, S. Uchida, J.K.B. Ford, P. Ladron de Guevara-P, M. Yamaguchi and J. Barlow. (2008). Geographic variation in killer whale attacks on humpback whales in the North Pacific: implications for predation pressure. Endangered Species Research, 4, 247-256. (full text PDF)

Pack, A. A. & Herman, L. M. (2007). Using electronic maps of real-time whale locations to mitigate vessel collisions with whales. TDI Technical Report 2007-01. Final report to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Washington, D.C., 78p.

Green, S. R., Mercado III, E., Pack, A. A., & Herman, L. M. (2007). Characterizing patterns within humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) songs. Aquatic Mammals, 33, 202-213.
Au, W.W.L., Pack, A.A., Lammers, M.O., Herman, L.M., Deakos, M.H., & Andrews, K. (2006). Acoustic properties of humpback whale songs. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120, 1103-1110. (full text PDF).

Goetschius, K. (2006).  Dive duration and breathing rate of humpback whales on their Hawaiian wintering grounds.  Unpublished Masters Thesis.  University of Hawaii.

Mercado III, E., Herman, L. M., & Pack, A. A. (2005). Song copying by humpback whales: Themes and variations. Animal Cognition. See also (full text PDF).

Mizroch, S. A., Herman, L. M., Straley, J. M., Glockner-Ferrari, D. A., Jurasz, C., Darling, J., Cerchio, S., Gabriele, C. M., Salden, D. R., & von Ziegesar, O. (2004).  Estimating the adult survival rate of central north Pacific humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).  Journal of Mammalogy, 85, 963-972. (full text PDF)

Herman, E. Y. K., Goetschius, K. J. C., & Herman, L. M. (2005). Potential threats to humpback whales (Part E): Entanglement, fish farms, and separate calves/predation. Report to the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary.

Pack, A. A., Potter, J. R., & Herman, L. M. (2004). Determining source levels, sound fields, and body sizes of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Hawaiian winter grounds. Final technical report to the Office of Naval Research. Arlington. Grant N00014-02-1-1058.

Hakala, S. (2004). Behavioral studies of male humpback whales in Hawaiian waters. Unpublished Masters thesis. University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Goetschius, K. J. C., Herman, L. M., Pack, A. A., & Herman, E. Y. K. (2003). Threats to humpback whales in Hawaiian waters. Part D: Waste discharge from ships, threats and effects of pollution, oil spills. Report to the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Honolulu.

Herman, L. M., Goetschius, K. J. C., & Herman, E. Y. K. (2003). Threats to humpback whales in Hawaiian waters. Part C: A summary of military activities in sanctuary waters, Shallow water training ranges. Report to the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Honolulu.

Herman, L. M., Herman, E. Y. K., & Goetschius, K. J. C. (2003). Threats to humpback whales in Hawaiian waters. Part B: Effects of ATOC, LFA, and Mid-Range Sonars. Report to the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Honolulu.

Herman, E. Y. K., Herman, L. M., & Goetschius, K. J. C. (2003). Threats to humpback whales in Hawaiian waters. Part A: Humpback exploitation, migration, abundance, social structure; vessels and vessel noise; vessel strikes. Report to the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Honolulu.

Craig, A. S., Herman, L. M. Gabriele, C. M. & Pack, A. A. (2003). Migratory timing of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the central North Pacific varies with age, sex and reproductive status. Behaviour, 140, 981-1001. (full text PDF)

Mercado, E. III, Herman, L. M., & Pack, A. A. (2003). Stereotypical sound patterns in humpback whale songs: usage and function. Aquatic Mammals, 29, 37-52.

Lammers, M. O., Pack, A. A., & Davis, L. (2003). Historical evidence of whale/vessel collisions in Hawaiian waters (1975 – Present). Final technical report to the NOAA Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Honolulu. 25pp.

Spitz, S. S., Herman, L. M., Pack, A. A. & Deakos, M. H. (2002). The relation of body size of male humpback whales to their social roles on the Hawaiian winter grounds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 1938-1947. (full text PDF)

Pack, A. A., Herman, L. M., Craig, A. S., Spitz, S. S., & Deakos, M. H. (2002). Penis extrusions by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Aquatic Mammals, 28, 131-146.

Craig, A.S., Herman, L.M., & Pack, A.A. (2002). Male mate choice and male-male competition coexist in the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 80, 745-755. (full text PDF)

Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G. H., Straley, J. M., Herman, L. M., Cerchio, S., Salden, D. R., Urban R., J., Jacobsen, J. K., von Ziegesar, O., Balcomb, K. C., Gabriele, C. M., Dahlheim, M. E., Uchida, S., Ellis, G., Miyamura, Y., De Guevara P., P. L., Yamaguchi, M., Sato, F., Mizroch, S. A., Schlender, L., Rasmussen, K., Barlow, J., & Quinn II, T. J. (2001). Movements and population structure of humpback whales in the North Pacific. Marine Mammal Science 17, 769-794.(full text PDF)

Craig, A. S., Herman, L. M., & Pack, A. A. (2001). Estimating residence times of humpback whales in Hawaii. Report to the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Off of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce and Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawaii.

Gabriele, C.M., Straley, J.M., Mizroch, S.A., Baker, C.S., Craig, A.S., Herman, L.M., Glockner-Ferrari, D., Ferrari, M.J., Cerchio, S., von Ziegesar, O., Darling, J., McSweeney, D., Quinn, T.J. II, & Jacobsen, J.K. (2001). Estimating the mortality rate of humpback whale calves in the central North Pacific Ocean. Can. J. Zool., 79, 289-600. See also (full text PDF).

Craig, A. S. (2001). Habitat utilization, migratory timing, and male escorting strategies of humpback whales in the Hawaiian Islands. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Hawaii
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Spitz, S.S., Herman, L.M., & Pack, A.A. (2000). Measuring sizes of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) by underwater videogrammetry. Marine Mammal Science, 16, 664-676. (full text PDF)

Craig, A.S., & Herman, L.M. (2000). Habitat preferences of female humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in the Hawaiian Islands are associated with reproductive status. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 193, 209-216. See also (full text PDF)

Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G.H., Rasmussen, K., Urban, J.R., Balcomb, K.C., Ladron de Guevara, P.P., Salinas, M.Z., Jacobsen, J.K., Baker, C.S., Herman, L.M., Cerchio, S., Darling, J.D. (2000). Migratory destinations of humpback whales that feed off California, Oregon, and Washington. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 192, 295-304.

Mobley, J.R. Jr., Bauer, G.B., & Herman, L.M. (1999). Changes over a ten-year interval in the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) wintering in Hawaii. Aquatic Mammals, 25, 63-72.

Salden, D.R., Herman, L.M., Yamaguchi M.,, & Sato, F. (1999). Multiple visits of individual humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) between the Hawaiian and Japanese winter grounds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77, 504-508.

Spitz (1999) The functional role of body size in humpback whale social behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Hawaii.

Waite, J.M., Dahlheim, M.E., Hobbs, S.A., Herman, L.M. & Jacobsen, J. (1999). Evidence of a feeding aggregation of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) around Kodiak Island, Alaska. Marine Mammal Science, 15, 220-227 (full text PDF).

Pack, A.A., Salden, D.R., Ferrari, M., Glockner-Ferrari, D., Herman, L.M., Stubbs, H.A., & Straley, J.M. (1998). Male humpback whale dies in competitive group. Marine Mammal Science, 14, 861-873 (full text PDF).


Cerchio, S., Gabriele, C.M., Norris, T.F., & Herman, L.M. (1998). Movements of humpback whales between Kauai and Hawaii: Implications for population structure and abundance estimation in the Hawaiian Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 175, 13-22.

Mercado, Eduardo III (1998). Humpback whale bioacoustics: From form to function. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Hawaii.

Craig, A.S., & Herman, L.M. (1997). Sex differences in site fidelity and migration of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to the Hawaiian islands. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 75, 1923-1933.
See also (full text PDF)

Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G. H., Straley, J. M., Quinn, T., Barlow, J., Herman, L. M., Cerchio, S., Salden, D. R., Yamaguchi, M., Sato, F., Urban, J., Jacobsen, R. J., von Ziegesar, O., Balcomb, K. C., Gabriele, C. M., Dahlheim, M. E., Higashi, N., Ford, J. K. B., Miyamura, Y., Ladron de Guevara, P., Mizroch, S. A., Schlender, L., & Rasmussen, K. (1997) Population, abundance, and structure of humpback whales in the North Pacific Basin. Draft final report to the Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, CA by Cascadia Research Collective, 218 1/2 West Fourth Ave., Olympia, WA 37p.

Gabriele, C. M., Straley, J. M., Herman, L. M., & Coleman, R. J. (1996). Fastest documented migration of a North Pacific humpback whale. Marine Mammal Science, 12, 457-465.(full text PDF)


Frankel, A. S., Clark, C. W., Herman, L. M. & Gabriele, C. M. (1995). Spatial distribution, habitat utilization, and social interactions of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, off Hawai'i, determined using acoustic and visual techniques. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73, 1134-1146.

Frankel, A. S., Mobley, J. R., & Herman, L. M. (1995). Estimation of auditory response thresholds in humpback whales using biologically meaningful sounds. In R. A. Kastelein, J. A. Thomas, & P. E. Nachtigall (Eds.), Sensory systems of aquatic animals., 55-70. Woerden, The Netherlands: De Spil Publishers.


Mercado, Eduardo III (1995). An Acoustic Analysis of Humpback Whale (Megaptera Novaeangliae) Song Units. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Craig, A. S. (1995). Site Fidelity and Reproductive Histories of Humpback Whales in the Hawaiian Islands and Southeast Alaska. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Helweg, D. A., & Herman, L. M. (1994). Diurnal patterns of behaviour and group membership of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) wintering in Hawaiian waters. Ethology, 98, 298-311.

Coleman, R.J. (1994). Aerial Behavior of the Hawaiian Humpback Whale. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Frankel, A. S. (1994). Acoustic and Visual Tracking Reveals Distribution, Song Variability and Social Roles of Humpback Whales in Hawaiian Waters. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Herman, L. M. (1994). Hawaiian Humpback Whales and ATOC: A Conflict of Interests. The Journal of Environment and Development, 3, 63-76.

Helweg, D. A. & Herman, L. M. (1993). Observations of an S-shaped posture in humpback whales. Aquatic Mammals, 18, 74-78.

Helweg, D. A., Frankel, A. S., Mobley, J. R. Jr. & Herman, L. M. (1992). Humpback whale song: Our current understanding. In J. R. Thomas, R. A. Kastelein, & A. Ya. Supin (Eds.),Sensory Processes of Marine Mammals, 459-483. NY: Plenum.

Gabriele, C. M. (1991). The Behavior and Residence Characteristics of Reproductive Classes of Humpback Whales (Megaptera noveangliae) in the Hawaiian Waters. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hawaii.

Helweg, D. A., Herman, L. M., Yamamoto, S., and Forestell, P. H. (1990). Comparison of songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) recorded in Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico during the winter of 1989. Scientific Reports of Cetacean Research, 1, 1-20.

Perry, A., Baker, C. S. & Herman, L. M. (1990). Population characteristics of individually identified humpback whales in the central and eastern North Pacific: A summary and critique. In G.P. Donovan (Ed.) Reports of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 12: Photo-identification) 307-317.

Baker, C.S. & Herman, L. M. (1989). The behavioral responses of summering humpback whales to vessel traffic: Experimental and opportunistic observations. (Final Report ot the National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office, Anchorage).

Helweg, D.A. (1989). The daily and seasonal patterns of behavior and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian waters. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Herman, L. M. (1989). Migration, social behavior, and ecology of whales. In J. Foerster (Ed.) Workshop in biology and target acoustics of marine life, 53-65 Washington DC: American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Herman, L. M. (1988). Commentary on the humpback whale. [Forward to Gentle giants: At sea with the humpback whale] (T. Nakamura, author). San Fransisco: Choronicle Books (Janpanese language edition first pub. 1984).

Maybaum, H. L. (1988). Effects of a 3.3 kHz Sonar System on humpback whales (Megapters nonvaeangliae), in Hawaiian waters. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Mobley, J. R., Jr., Herman, L. M., and Frankel, A. S. (1988) Responses of wintering humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to playback of recordings of winter and summer vocalizations and synthetic sound. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 23, 211-223.

Perry, A., Mobley, J. R. Jr., Baker, C. S. and Herman, L. M. (1988). Humpback Whales of the Central and Eastern North Pacific: A Catalog of Individual Identification Photographs. (Sea Grant Miscellaneous Reports, UNIHI-SEA GRANT-NR-88-02).

Baker, C. S. and Herman, L. M. (1987). Alternative population estimates of humpback whales (Megaptera novaengliae) in Hawaiian waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 2818-2821.

Baker, C. S., Perry, A., and Herman, L. M. (1987). Reproductive histories of female humpback whales Megaptera noaeangliae in the North Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress series, 41, 103-114.

Frankel, A. S. (1987). Sound playback experiments with humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian waters. Unbuplished master's thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Baker, C. S., Herman, L. M., Perry, A., Lawton, W. S., Straley, J. M., Wolman, A. A., Kaufman, G. D., Winn, H. E., Hall, J. D., Reinke, J. M., & Ostman, J. (1986). Migratory movement and population structure of Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Central and Eastern North Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 31, 105-119.

Bauer, G. B. (1986). The behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii and modification of behavior induced by human intervention. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Bauer, G. B. and Herman, L. M. (1986). Effects of vessel traffic on the behavior of humpback whales in Hawaii. (Final Report to the National Marine Fisheries Services).

Mobley, J. R. Herman, L. M. & Frankel, A. S. (1986). Sound playback experiments with humpback whales in the Hawaiian wintering grounds. Sea Grant Quarterly, 8(3), 1-6.

Baker, C. S. (1985). The population structure and social organization of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the central and eastern North Pacific. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Baker, C. S., and Herman, L. M. (October 1985). Whales that go to extremes. Natural History, 94, 52-61.

Baker, C. S., Herman, L. M., Perry, A., Lawton, W. S., Straley, J. M., & Straley, J. H. (1985). Population characteristics and migration of summer and late season humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Southereastern Alaska. Marine Mammal Science, 1, 304-323.(full text PDF)


Bauer, G.B., Fuller, M., Perry, A., Dunn, JU.R., & Zoeger, J. (1985). Magnetoreception and biomineralization of magnetite in cetaceans. In J.L. Kirschvink, D.S. Jones, & B.J. McFadden (Eds.) Magnetite Biomineralization and Magnetoreception in Organisms (pp. 489-507). New York: Plenum.

Mobley, J. R. and Herman, L. M. (1985). Transience of social affiliations among humpback whales(Megaptera novaeamgliae) on the Hawaiian wintering grounds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63, 762-772.

Perry, A., Baker, C. S. & Herman, L. M. (1985). The natural history of humpback whales in Glacier Bay, Alaska. (Report to the National Park Service).

Baker, C. S. and Herman, L. M. (1984). Aggressive behavior between humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) wintering in Hawaiian waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62, 1922-1937.

Baker, C. S. and Herman, L. M. (1984). Seasonal contrasts in the social behavior of the humpback whale. Cetus, 5, 14-16.

Baker, C. S., Herman, L. M., Bays, B. G., & Bauer, G. B. (1983). The impact of vessel traffic on the behavior of humpback whales in Southeast Alaska: 1982 season. (Final Report to the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, Contract No. 82-ABC-00199)

Baker, C. S., Herman, L. M., Bays, B. G., & Stifel, W. F. (1982). The impact of vessel traffic on the behavior of humpack whales in Southeast Alaska: 1981 season. Final Report to the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service. (Contract No. 81-ABC-00114).

Baker, C. S. and Herman, L. M. (1981). Migration and local movement of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) through Hawaiian waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 59, 460-469.

Herman, L.M., Forestell, P. H. & Antinoja, R. C. (1980). Study of the 1976/77 migration of humpback whales into Hawaiian waters: Composite description. Final Report to the U.S. Marine Mammal. Commission. (Report No. MMC-77/19). United States National Technical Information Services, Arlington, VA.

Herman, L.M., Forestell, P. H., Baker, S. & Antinoja, R. C. (1980). Right whale Balaena glacialis sightings near Hawaii: A clue to the wintering grounds? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2, 271-275.

Herman, L. M. and Tavolga, W. N. (1980). The communication systems of cetaceans. In L. M. Herman (Ed.), Cetacean behavior: Mechanisms and functions, 149-209. New York: Wiley Interscience.
 
Herman, L. M. (1979). Humpback whales in Hawaiian waters: A study in historical ecology. Pacific Science, 33, 1-15.

Herman, L. M. (1979). Temporal and spatial distribution of humpback whales at the island of Hawaii and relations to the OTEC-1 project. (Environmental Impact Report to TRW Inc.).

Herman, L. M. (1978). The Hawaiian humpback whale problem. (Report to the Marine Mammal Comission and Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals).

Herman, L. M. (1977). Humpback whales in Hawaiian Breeding Waters II. Behaviors. (Report to the United States Marine Mammal Commission).

Herman, L. M. and Antinoja, R. C. (1977). Humpback whales in the Hawaiian breeding waters: Population and pod characteristics. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo), 29, 59-85.

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